Aristanti Oktavia Dewi
Universitas Proklamasi 45 Yogyakarta
Islam is growing in various parts of the world. One reason is the Islamic commitment that sets out the principle of democracy. Discussion of how the relationship between Islam and democracy are not difficult to find in various scientific forums and other forums. Democracy is considered very important because of the terminology; democracy is a system of government which conceptually has the principle of the people, by the people and for the people, what is known as the Vox Populi Vox Dei (the voice of people, the voice of God). Likewise with Islam which is committed to the welfare of humans to be very important, such as the revelation which said that the best man is a man that is beneficial to the surrounding. Experts and academics considered that Islam has brought a lot of changes and encouragement toward Democracy system. Robin Wright, an expert on the Middle East and the Islamic world is very well known wrote in the Journal of Democracy (1996) that Islam and the Islamic culture is not a hindrance for the occurrence of political modernization.
The theme of Islam and democracy is certainly not new. In fact, it is always discussed, both at the local, national, and international levels. It sometimes can signal other thing, that as if there is no compatibility between Islam and democracy. So it is still going on stigmatization among the international community that Islam is incompatible with democracy, especially regarding the concept of 'sovereignty of people' in a democracy with what is often referred to as 'the sovereignty of God' (Hakimiyyah Allah) in Islam. Samuel P. Huntington said that the high culture of Islam is accompanied by unitarianism principles; govern ethics, individualism, scripturalism, puritanism, egalitarianism and voluntarism. These values are not only compatible with democracy, but also the socio-economic life and the modern politics. In addition, there are some basic principles in the Alqur’an that could form the basis for the acceptance of democracy in Islam, such as al-syura (discussion), al-musawa (equality), al-Hurriyah (freedom of giving notion), al-'adalah (justice), and al-ukhuwwah (brotherhood). Based on these basic principles, the acceptance of democracy through the framework of siyasah jurisprudence is not seen reducing the sovereignty of God '.
The purpose of this paper is to explain the role of the state in regulating Islamic democracy in Indonesia that can play a role in the structure and process of national life.
Democracy cannot walk well without respect and adherence to the legal order. Of course, it is also taught by Islam. Democracy can also be chaotic without public civility, such as the attitude and behavior based on manners, morals, ethics, and morality. Politics and democracy without public civility like that can lead to a disorder. Like what happened with Islamic organizations with influence and power can strengthen the appearance of democracy without public civility.
In view of Masdar F. Mas'udi, if democracy as an idea that is based on the principle of freedom or equality and sovereignty of people to determine matters relating to public affairs, it is fundamentally in line with Islam. This, at least, looked on Islamic teachings about the values of life which must be a reference, namely:
Al-Syura, in which every citizen has the right to consult and participate in public affairs of common interest which is based on Q.S. As-Syuura verse 38. Al-Musawah, humans have equality in front of God as described in Q.S. al-Hujurat verse 13. Al-Hurriyah, independence or freedom are based on moral and legal responsibility, both in this world and the hereafter, which is based on Q.S. at-Thur verse 21. Al-'adalah, justice emphasizes to the fulfillment of human rights as individuals and as the community’s members as described in Q.S. an-Nahl verse 90. Al-Ukhuwwah, brotherhood of humans as a species that was created from the same raw materials and were born from the same father and mother as described in Q.S. al-Baqarah verse 213.
Democracy system which has the character of Islam in Indonesia has a purpose to the community welfare. The system is regarded ideal because it consists of the principle of participation, equality, freedom of giving notion, justice, and brotherhood.
The principle of participation itself is done by participating in various activities that are beneficial to create a culture of mutual respect among communities. The principle of equality is implemented since man is created by God in the same position. There is no difference between human beings with each other and to avoid social inequality between the rich and the poor (for example). The only difference being the level of their god-fearing.
The principle of freedom of giving notion is implemented since man is created with the intelligence and the mind so, to broaden their horizons and their minds are required to free to giving notion. Principle of Justice in Indonesia was reinforced with the implementation of the law in Indonesia that punishes anyone who violates the law indiscriminately. Legal rated as commander of the country. The principle of the Brotherhood is run by community in Indonesia because of the unity sense of Indonesia citizens where the individuals therein bound by blood, type, language and customs that have been crystallized. Basically in a democracy has consisted of principles that do not violate Islam.
In a way, democracy practice in Indonesia since the beginning until now is not always be able to become an effective political system because our democracy has not been able to realize the concrete result, yet, for example, to improve the community welfare. By contrast, in the implementation step is often seen democracy change into democrazy. In that context, it is expected society organizations (CBOs) in particular are based on religious can play an important role in safeguarding the application of better democracy. One of the examples is giving socialization to its members about the need for compliance to the law and public civility in democracy.
Islam is a very open and accommodating religion to all cultural development. Democracy for Islam is not something strange. Islam never sees democracy as a Western culture that should be avoided. There is no a clear and transparent evidence which can be an indicator that the concept of democracy against and violate with syura. Now, Muslims are supposed to fill the democracy is in line with Islamic law.
(Made to participate in international internship program 2016 conducted by Foreign Policy Community of Indonesia)